If you need to alter a photo, there’s a good chance you’ll photoshop it. But even though people have been photoshopping images for 30 years as of today, it wasn’t until the last decade that it became widely accepted that you can use “photoshop” as a verb. Before then, you were more likely to “edit an image with Photoshop” than you were to “photoshop an image.”
The rise of photoshop — the verb — tracks with our cultural concerns around image manipulation. While the term was adopted among internet commenters just years after the software’s release on February 19th, 1990, it didn’t become widespread until stories about edited propaganda and touched-up celebrities began to regularly fill our news feeds almost two decades later.THERE WERE PLENTY OF CHEAPER EDITING APPS — PHOTOSHOP DIDN’T HAVE TO BECOME THE GO-TO WORD
It wasn’t inevitable that photoshop would become the go-to term for image manipulation. Photographers had been manipulating photos for more than a century before Photoshop was created, and it wasn’t the only piece of image editing software around in the early days of computers. On top of that, Photoshop was largely inaccessible professional software: hard to use and really expensive. It originally sold for $895, and it never got much cheaper.
It was very much in spite of these hurdles that photoshop became the known term for image editing. In part, that’s because it quickly became the industry standard for designers. But it also quickly became picked up as the tool used for goofier creations and online jokes, too, leading to many of its first informal uses.
Blogs and tech publications were among the first to start referring to Photoshop more colloquially. Wired wrote that someone had “Photoshopped set designs” in an article from October 1999. Something Awful appears to have first used “Photoshopping” in November 2001 while writing about covering its founder’s face with digital pimples. Over the next few years, Boing Boing mentioned “Photoshopping” twisted versions of children’s books, and Engadget referenced having “Photoshopped” an image to display on the PlayStation Portable.PIRACY SPIKED, AND SO DID CONCERNS AROUND PHOTOSHOPPED IMAGES
Early uses of the term among mainstream publications were a bit more awkward. In 2006, The New York Times wrote about a model whose body was “apparently Adobe Photoshopped,” while The Wall Street Journal used the term metaphorically (“he has Photoshopped it in his mind”) to refer to a person who had reconsidered his view of a photo.
It was also around this time that Photoshop became much more widely accessible — though not by Adobe’s choice. Peer-to-peer piracy services like Napster had been around since the turn of the century, but it was in the mid-2000s that software piracy became far more widespread. Adoption of broadband internet spiked early in the decade, and, combined with BitTorrent, it became much easier to download and distribute pirated copies of large apps and games. While details on the widespread piracy of Photoshop are largely anecdotal, a 2009 report from a group of software makers, including Adobe, estimated that more than 40 percent of PC software was pirated.
Use of the term really began to grow as concerns around photoshopped images became mainstream. In 2007, Gawker started writing about celebrity images that had been photoshopped, such as a supposed lewd image of Paris Hilton. In 2008, TMZ reported on a L’Oréal image featuring a “severely Photoshopped Beyonce.” That same year, The New York Times wrote about how Iran’s state media appeared to have photoshopped an image of a missile test to add a fourth missile when only three had been launched, and The Telegraph covered a controversy around whether a Dove ad campaign meant to feature “real beauty” rather than retouched models had, in fact, been retouched.“THE VERB IS JUST TOO EFFICIENT A WAY TO REFER TO THE ACTION.”
The big turn came during those years when large publications started using photoshop unadorned — as in, “I’m going to photoshop this image.” TMZ called on readers to “Photoshop some scandalous threesome photos” of a few celebrities in March 2007. The term appeared in The New York Times a month later and on Gawker a year after that.
Seeing usage rise in those years, Merriam-Webster decided to add “photoshop” to its dictionary in 2008. “As it gained increased use, it was just clear that it was not going anywhere,” Emily Brewster, a Merriam-Webster senior editor, told The Verge. “The verb is just too efficient a way to refer to the action.”
Brewster says that kind of linguistic efficiency — e.g., “I photoshopped it” versus “I altered the image using digital software” — is often the reason a noun will morph into a verb. “Especially when a noun refers to a process or a way of doing something, it really lends itself to the transformation into a verb,” Brewster said.
These examples from news websites were not the altogether earliest uses of photoshop as a verb. Merriam-Webster’s earliest cataloged use of photoshop is from a Usenet newsgroup in 1992. And if you look through old forums and the archives of news websites, you’ll find instances of photoshop, photoshopped, and photoshopping peppering the comments sections far earlier than you’ll find them in actual articles.AS KENDRICK SAYS ON HIS PULITZER-WINNING ALBUM, “I’M SO FUCKIN’ SICK AND TIRED OF THE PHOTOSHOP.”
Part of the reason is that traditional publications are typically hesitant to use colloquial language until it’s generally understood among readers. That generally means that, once a word like photoshop is printed by a major publication, it’s attained some degree of widespread usage — enough that editors believe it’ll be clear to most readers.
This is also the kind of formally approved usage that Merriam-Webster looks for when determining whether to add a new word. “That tells us it’s reached this level of usage that means native speakers are likely to come across the word in print, and the word is likely to stick around,” Brewster said. And that means if readers don’t know its meaning, it’ll be in the dictionary for them to look up.
In a lovely coincidence, The Verge’s copy desk made a number of updates to our site’s style guide yesterday. Among them was the guidance that we may now “lowercase proper nouns as verbs,” which means that, after nine years on the internet, writers at The Verge can finally tell you to go google something or to photoshop an image.
“I think that the users of a language — the people — should be guiding standards, not brands or companies,” Kara Verlaney, The Verge’s senior copy editor, told me. Continuing to capitalize photoshop “just stopped making sense” when these words are already used so colloquially, she said. “I didn’t decide to [change it]. It was already happening.”ADOBE ISN’T THRILLED ABOUT ANY OF THIS
In recent years, the word photoshop has also had its meaning divorced from the application itself, become shorthand for lying in general. On “Humble,” Kendrick Lamar raps “I’m so fuckin’ sick and tired of the Photoshop” and pleads to see something natural. Jay-Z discusses perceptions of his marriage on a song from Everything is Love with the line “No photoshop, just real life.” The photo editing isn’t the point; it’s about the overall manipulation of reality.
As this sort of transformation happens, the companies behind these proper nouns are usually resistant to them becoming used colloquially and generically like this. If a word becomes too much of a generic term, companies risk losing their trademark — as happened for Escalator, which was originally a name brand of escalators. (The term became so generic, it even morphed into the word “escalate,” according to Merriam-Webster.)
Photoshop is a trademarked term, too, and Adobe has been hesitant to embrace the word’s success over concerns about losing the rights to it. Today, the company seems to avoid telling people not to use it, even if it won’t endorse the verb itself. In an email to The Verge, Adobe said, “We’re very proud of the Photoshop brand, its place in culture, and the role it continues to play in fostering Creativity for All.”
But in the past, Adobe has been more direct about telling people not to use the app’s name as a verb. As early as 2004, the company issued a memo that people should instead say, “The image was modified using Adobe® Photoshop® software.”
Unfortunately, that’s just not as catchy as saying a picture was ‘shopped.
iPhone 12’s four models compared: Differences between iPhone 12, Pro, Pro Max and Mini
After a month-long delay due to the, Apple last week announced its latest family of iPhones . The new lineup includes the , and all feature 5G connectivity, a magnetic backing branded as that can attach to a and a new ceramic display that promises to be more durable. You can read CNET’s .
With so many devices, it can get a little confusing about what makes these handsets different from each other. In general, the iPhone 12 and 12 Mini are the two most affordable phones in the lineup and have dual rear cameras. The two Pro models are the highest-end and priciest iPhones. In addition to a third telephoto camera, they also have a LiDar scanner for modeling and object detection. (Here’sat different prices.)
For a full rundown on the iPhone 12, take a look at the chart below, where you can see their specs side-by-side. And for more information on all of the iPhone news.
IPHONE 12, 12 MINI, 12 PRO AND 12 PRO MAX SPECS
|Apple iPhone 12||Apple iPhone 12 Mini||Apple iPhone 12 Pro||Apple iPhone 12 Pro Max|
|Display size, resolution||6.1-inch OLED; 2,532×1,170 pixels||5.4-inch OLED; 2,340×1,080 pixels||6.1-inch OLED; 2,532×1,170 pixels||6.7-inch OLED; 2,778×1,284 pixels|
|Dimensions (inches)||5.78 x 2.82 x 0.29 in.||5.18 x 2.53 x 0.29 in.||5.78 x 2.82 x 0.29 in.||6.33 x 3.07 x 0.29 in.|
|Dimensions (millimeters)||146.7 x 71.5 x 7.4mm||131.5 x 64.2 x 7.4mm||146.7 x 71.5 x 7.4mm||160.8 x 78.1 x 7.4mm|
|Weight (ounces, grams)||5.78 oz.; 164g||4.76 oz.; 135g||6.66 oz.; 189g||8.03 oz.; 228g|
|Mobile software||iOS 14||iOS 14||iOS 14||iOS 14|
|Camera||12-megapixel (wide), 12-megapixel (ultra-wide)||12-megapixel (wide), 12-megapixel (ultra-wide)||12-megapixel (wide), 12-megapixel (ultra-wide), 12-megapixel (telephoto)||12-megapixel (wide), 12-megapixel (ultra-wide), 12-megapixel (telephoto)|
|Processor||Apple A14 Bionic||Apple A14 Bionic||Apple A14 Bionic||Apple A14 Bionic|
|Storage||64GB, 128GB, 256GB||64GB, 128GB, 256GB||128GB, 256GB, 512GB||128GB, 256GB, 512GB|
|Battery||Undisclosed; Apple lists 15 hours of video playback||Undisclosed; Apple lists 15 hours of video playback||Undisclosed; Apple lists 17 hours of video playback||Undisclosed; Apple lists 17 hours of video playback|
|Fingerprint sensor||No (FaceID)||No (FaceID)||No (FaceID)||No (FaceID)|
|Special features||5G enabled; MagSafe; water resistant (IP68); wireless charging; dual-SIM capabilities (nano-SIM and e-SIM)||5G enabled; MagSafe; water resistant (IP68); wireless charging; dual-SIM capabilities (nano-SIM and e-SIM)||Lidar scanner; 5G enabled; MagSafe; water resistant (IP68); wireless charging; dual-SIM capabilities (nano-SIM and e-SIM)||Lidar scanner; 5G enabled; MagSafe; water resistant (IP68); wireless charging; dual-SIM capabilities (nano-SIM and e-SIM)|
|Price off-contract (USD)||$829 (64GB), $879 (128GB), $979 (256GB)||$729 (64GB), $779 (128GB), $879 (256GB)||$999 (128GB), $1,099 (256GB), $1,299 (512GB)||$1,099 (128GB), $1,199 (256GB), $1,399 (512GB)|
|Price (GBP)||£799 (64GB), £849 (128GB), £949 (256GB)||£699 (64GB), £749 (128GB), £849 (256GB)||£999 (128GB), £1,099 (256GB), £1,299 (512GB)||£1,099 (128GB), £1,199 (256GB), £1,399 (512GB)|
|Price (AUD)||AU$1,349 (64GB), AU$1,429 (128GB), AU$1,599 (256GB)||AU$1,199 (64GB), AU$1,279 (128GB), AU$1,449 (256GB)||AU$1,699 (128GB), AU$1,869 (256GB), AU$2,219 (512GB)||AU$1,849 (128GB), AU$2,019 (256GB), AU$2,369 (512GB)|
iPhone 12 vs. iPhone 11
This month, Apple unveiled the iPhone 12 as the successor to the popular iPhone 11, with a new squared-off industrial design, the A14 Bionic chip, an OLED display, and MagSafe. As devices that are more affordable than the Pro models, but more fully-featured than the low-cost iPhone SE or iPhone XR, the iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 mini will likely be the most popular options for consumers.
The previous iPhone 11 continues to be sold by Apple. As it is a year older than the most recent iPhone 12, it starts at $599, while the iPhone 12 starts at $799. As the iPhone 11 and iPhone 12 share a large number of features, should you consider purchasing the older model to save money? Our guide helps to answer the question of how to decide which of these two iPhones is best for you, but overall the iPhone 12 is a moderate upgrade over the iPhone 11.
Comparing the iPhone 11 and the iPhone 12
The iPhone 11 and iPhone 12 share a large number of key features, such as display size and battery life. Apple lists these same features of the iPhone 11 and iPhone 12:
- 6.1-inch Retina display with True Tone, P3 wide color, Haptic Touch, and a max brightness of 625 nits
- A-Series Bionic chip
- Dual 12MP Ultra Wide and Wide cameras with two times optical zoom range, Night mode, Deep Fusion, and optical image stabilisation
- Face ID
- Battery life with up to 17 hours of video playback
- Aerospace-grade aluminum
- Lightning connector
- 4GB of RAM
- Available in 64GB, 128GB, and 256GB
- Available in White, Black, Green, and (PRODUCT)RED
Apple’s breakdown shows that the iPhones share a number of notable key features. Even so, there are meaningful differences between the iPhone 11 and iPhone 12, including display technology, the processor, and 5G connectivity.
- LCD Liquid Retina HD display with 1792-by-828-pixel resolution at 326 ppi and 1,400:1 contrast ratio
- 4G LTE cellular
- A13 Bionic chip
- Wide Lens f/1.8
- Next-generation Smart HDR for photos
- Water resistant to a depth of two metres for up to 30 minutes
- Qi wireless charging
- Available in White, Black, Green, Yellow, Purple, and (PRODUCT)RED
- OLED Super Retina XDR display with 2532-by-1170-pixel resolution at 460 ppi, 2,000,000:1 contrast ratio, and HDR
- 5G connectivity
- A14 Bionic chip
- Wide Lens f/1.6
- Smart HDR 3 for photos
- Dolby Vision HDR video recording up to 30 fps and Night mode Time-lapse
- Front-facing Night mode and Deep Fusion
- Ceramic Shield front
- Water resistant to a depth of six metres for up to 30 minutes
- MagSafe and Qi wireless charging
- Available in White, Black, Blue, Green, and (PRODUCT)RED
Note that the iPhone 12 Pro provides a few improvements to the iPhone 12 in the areas of camera quality, LiDAR, RAM, and material design. Meanwhile, besides the size of screen and battery, the iPhone 12 Mini is otherwise identical to the iPhone 12.
Read on for a closer look at each of these aspects, and see what exactly both iPhones have to offer.
Design and Colors
The iPhone 12 has a new squared-off industrial design with a flat aluminum band around the sides. Both iPhones use aerospace-grade aluminum on the edges and a single piece of polished glass on the rear.
The designs are actually fairly similar, but with the iPhone 12’s edges being flat and the iPhone 11’s being convex. The iPhone 12 represents a refinement, or what Apple calls an “elevation,” of the iPhone 11’s design rather than a complete overhaul, but it does feel markedly more modern, and may well be more secure to hold in the hand. The iPhone 12 is also 0.9mm thinner and 32 grams lighter than the iPhone 11.
Both are available in White, Black, Green, and (PRODUCT)RED, but each generation has some exclusive colors. The iPhone 11 is also available in Yellow or Purple, while the iPhone 12 is available in Blue.
The display is an area of major improvement for the iPhone 12. The latest model has an OLED Super Retina XDR display, compared to the iPhone 11’s LCD Liquid Retina HD display. The OLED display offers nearly twice the peak brightness of iPhone 11, significantly higher contrast and true blacks, HDR for richer colors, and systemwide color management for industry-leading color accuracy.
The new OLED display also features reduced bezels compared to the previous LCD model. By pushing the display further to the edges, the overall footprint of the device is slightly smaller. iPhone 12 also features stronger Ceramic Shield front glass, with up to four times improved drop performance.
The display improvements of the iPhone 12 are one of the main reasons to get the newer model. The iPhone 11’s LCD Liquid Retina display is good but slightly dated. There is no doubt that the advances made with the iPhone 12 and OLED make for a much more attractive device.
A13 vs A14
Apple says that the A14 is “the fastest chip in a smartphone,” and is the first commercial processor to be built on a five-nanometer process. The iPhone 12 is roughly expected to be 18.4% faster in single-core performance and 17.6% faster overall in multi-core scoring than the iPhone 11. For machine learning, the A14 Bionic features a 16-core Neural Engine, resulting in an 80 percent increase in performance.
A13 Bionic is still up to 20 percent faster than the A12, and the performance improvements of the A14 are not so drastic as to make the A13 feel slow by comparison. The A13 in the iPhone 11 remains a very powerful processor that is capable of completing all day-to-day tasks fluidly.
The iPhone 12 comes with sub-6Ghz 5G, as well as faster mmWave 5G in the United States. 5G will deliver improved internet speeds for faster downloads and uploads, higher quality video streaming, more responsive gaming, real-time interactivity in apps, FaceTime in high definition, and more. iPhone 12 models also feature a new “Smart Data mode,” which extends battery life by intelligently assessing 5G needs and balancing data usage, speed, and power in real time.
The iPhone 11 has the normal 4G LTE cellular connectivity that has been present in smartphones for many years, with no ability to connect to 5G.
In spite of its merits, 5G is only worth it if have an eligible data plan and are in an area with 5G coverage. If you are in an area with good 5G coverage or you intend to keep your iPhone for some years, 5G connectivity with the iPhone 12 may be important to you. As 5G is still in its infancy, the iPhone 11 is still a good smartphone for its price without 5G.
Cameras Similar, Software Better
The cameras of the iPhone 11 and iPhone 12 are similar. Both feature rear a dual 12MP camera system with an Ultra Wide and a Wide lens. The Ultra Wide lenses have the same apertures, while the iPhone 12 Wide lens has a slightly larger aperture (f/1.6) which offers better low-light sensitivity. They also both share the same 12MP f/2.2 front facing camera.
Features such as Night mode, Deep Fusion, and optical image stabilization are shared between the devices on the Wide camera, but the iPhone 12 extends Night mode and Deep Fusion to the Ultra Wide and front facing camera as well.
For video, the iPhone 12 can record HDR video with Dolby Vision up to 30 fps and time-lapses with Night mode.
For more significant camera improvements, you’ll need to step up to the new iPhone 12 Pro, which adds a third camera lens for telephoto capabilities, as well as a LiDAR scanner for improved autofocus and other features that rely on depth perception.
Battery and Charging
Both iPhones have a battery life allowing for up to 17 hours of video playback and can charge up to 50 percent in just 30 minutes with a 20W power adapter. Apple says that the iPhone 12 can achieve up to 11 hours of streaming video playback, instead of the ten hours of the iPhone 11, but it seems that both models will generally perform similarly when it comes to battery life.
iPhone 12 offers a unique charging feature, however. MagSafe improves wireless charging by easily aligning the charger with the internal coil via an array of magnets. MagSafe chargers can provide up to 15W of power while still accommodating existing Qi-enabled devices.
Other iPhone Options
Apple is also continuing to sell the iPhone XR, which was the predecessor to the iPhone 11, for $499. The iPhone XR shares the design and display of iPhone 11, but uses an older chip, cannot use camera features such as Night mode, and has a single rear camera only. If you are on a budget or don’t need some of the iPhone 11’s features such as the dual-camera setup, the iPhone XR may be a better option for you.
If you feel that iPhone 11 or iPhone 12 does not offer enough high-end features, and are interested in more advanced photography and videography, improved AR experiences, and more premium materials, you may wish to consider the iPhone 12 Pro or the iPhone 12 Pro Max.
Ultimately, the iPhone 12 offers some clear improvements over the iPhone 11 when it comes to the design, camera software, display, 5G, and MagSafe. While the improvements with regards to the camera hardware, processor, and battery life are relatively small, the addition of Night mode and Deep Fusion to the Ultra Wide and front facing camera of the Phone 12 could be significant for some customers.
5G connectivity, the OLED Super Retina XDR display, refreshed design, improved night photos of the iPhone 12 are the key features that differentiate it from the iPhone 11. While the typical day-to-day experience of the device is probably not significantly different, the overall improvements push us to recommend an iPhone 12 over the iPhone 11, budget permitting.
iPhone 12 vs. iPhone 11: Main differences, according to the buzzing rumor mill
Apple is expected to unveil the at its (tomorrow), and ship the new phones sometime . If you’re thinking about upgrading from last year’s iPhone 11 to the iPhone 12, you may be wondering: What exactly is the difference going to be?
We won’t know for sure until the new phones are revealed on Tuesday. But we’ve gathered the most probable rumors to see how the iPhone 12 will likely stack up against the iPhone 11. You can also determine , and the .
The biggest differences between the iPhone 11 and iPhone 12 will likely be the specs, of course. This is what we’re expecting from the iPhone 12.
Four iPhone 12 models
It’s possible that we’ll see iPhone 11 Pro (5.8-inch) and the iPhone 11 Pro Max (6.5-inch).launched on Tuesday: the iPhone 12 Mini (5.4-inch) the iPhone 12 and 12 Pro (6.1-inch), and the iPhone 12 Pro Max (6.7-inch). For comparison, there are only three iPhone 11s: the iPhone 11 (6.1-inch), the
Increased refresh rates
There is speculation that the iPhone 12’s display iPad Pro. Most phones (including the iPhone 11) refresh at 60 frames per second, or 60Hz, but some, like the and the , refresh at 120Hz. The higher the refresh rate, the faster and smoother a phone feels when scrolling through apps and websites.and , which you can currently find in the
As is typically the case with new iPhones, you can expect the iPhone 12’s cameras to be upgraded over the iPhone 11. The iPhone 11 has a photo Night Mode and anthat can add extra detail in photos, along with a great video camera. There have been rumors that the iPhone 12 may add a , like the Galaxy Note 10 Plus has, to help capture depth information. This could do a number of things like help with AR mapping, but could also mean you finally get the ability to have portrait mode in video.
The addition of 5G
One of the iPhone 12’s expected biggest new features is 5G connectivity, as virtually all new Android phones arriving in the US already have. This means the phones could tap into the high-speed wireless network on the go — which might seem , as we’re spending more time at home, but will still future-proof your device for the rise of 5G.. Apple’s event invitation starts with “Hi, Speed,” leading us to believe that the new phones will finally get
The iPhone 11 does not offer 5G connectivity, though many people seem to.
The 2019 iPhone 11’s base model cost $699, which was $50 less than the 2018 iPhone XR. It’s possible that this trend of lowering prices will continue: One tech analyst reports that the iPhone 12 base model (the Mini) will cost $649, the iPhone 12 Pro will cost $999 and the iPhone 12 Pro Max will cost $1,099. .
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